The main cause of the problem is an irregular shaped cornea or lens. The light ray has to pass through the cornea as well as the eye lens to reach the retina at the back of the eye. If any of these two has an irregular shape, it will distort the light ray passing through it, refracting more in one direction than other, causing a blurred or distorted vision. The vision is unclear as if you are watching into some fun house mirror with very tall or very small and irregularly shaped images.
Following are two major types of astigmatism.
Regular Astigmatism: This condition is caused when the cornea is not smooth and is curved more in one direction. Usually, it is a by the birth condition.
Irregular Astigmatism: In this condition either the curvature of the cornea is bent into multiple directions or is steeper towards the lower side. This is usually caused due to an eye injury resulting in a scar on the cornea.
Most of the people born with this problem also have any other refractive defect, like nearsightedness or farsightedness. Adults who have a higher degree of the ailment can detect the problem with their vision, but children are unable to differentiate the blurred or distorted vision from the normal condition. Hence, their life is affected badly, specifically when it comes to academics. Therefore, it is more important for children to have a regular eye examination.
The problem can be treated by using glasses or contact lens depending on the severity of the problem. In some cases, refractive eye surgery or laser treatment is also an option and can eliminate the problem permanently.
Up till now, the main cause of this problem is known. The only way to protect yourself and your family is to have a regular eye examination so that the problem could be detected and treated at the initial level.
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